Students need a classroom environment where they can share their views while being challenged by the course content. Research suggests that when students perceive a negative course climate, it affects their cognitive development, including reading comprehension, quantitative reasoning, and critical thinking. To craft an inclusive course climate, consider building on the suggestions from Creating a Welcoming Classroom with the strategies presented below. For additional resources, link to Resources for the Diverse Classroom.
For a research-based approach to creating a course climate that enhances students’ learning, see “Why do student development and course climate matter for student learning?” Chapter 6 in How Learning Works. In addition to synthesizing theories of student development, the authors examine the impact of course climate on student learning.
Below we’ve summarized strategies suggested by the research:
- Help students learn to wrestle with uncertainty. To foster intellectual development, challenge students with critical thinking problems that present multiple worldviews.
- Seek multiple answers and resources. Model for students the ways that knowledge develops, how ideas are questioned and tested over time, and how problems can have multiple solutions. Stay in problem-posing mode rather than hastening to problem-solving mode to encourage students to think deeply on an issue.
- Use evidence in your feedback to students. Rubrics and other tools can help you model the practice of using evidence to support opinions.
- Reflect on your assumptions. Our assumptions about students can impact our interactions, which can impact student learning.
- Frame learning success strategies in growth mindset terms, rather than accidentally referencing a stereotype. (See stereotype threat.)
- Present a range of examples to illustrate course concepts.
- Implement course climate assessments. You could meet with students, request a midterm CATALyst, or set up a classroom observation to find out how your course climate is perceived.
- Plan ahead for sensitive course content by preparing students to learn from controversy. Frame sensitive content by noting awareness that it may have personal significance, connecting it to your course goals, and reviewing your classroom ground rules.
- Don’t ignore tensions: address them as soon as possible and try to turn them into learning opportunities.
- Model active listening and ask students to practice this skill.
- Ambrose, S. A., M.W. Bridges, M. DiPietro, M.C. Lovett, & M.K. Norman. (2010). How learning works: seven research-based principles for smart teaching. (pp. 153-187). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Miller, D. Diversity checklist: Guidelines for course planning. Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved https://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/DiversityChecklist.pdf.
- Tanner, K. D. (2013). Structure matters: Twenty-one teaching strategies to promote student engagement and cultivate classroom equity. CBE Life Sciences Education, 12(3), 322–331. http://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.13-06-0115.
- University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. (2016). Inclusive teaching resources and strategies. Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/multicultural-teaching/inclusive-teaching-strategies.
- University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. (2016). Setting the tone for an inclusive classroom: Some practices to consider. Retrieved from